|Riassunto in Inglese:|
Graft transmissible diseases of pome and stone fruits have been known for several centuries to reduce yield and quality of fruits before the discovery that their etiological agents are viruses, viroids or phytoplasmas. The recognition that these agents are involved in the etiology of pome and/or stone fruit diseases was revealed during the first few decades of the 20th century for viruses and the 1970's and 1980's for viroids and phytoplasmas. During the last three decades much progress has been made in the fields of plant virology, molecular biology, genomics, biotechnology and immunology, which significantly accelerated and facilitated research on these pathogens. As a consequence, the flow of published information on these systemic pathogens has increased steadily, reporting both new findings on known pathogens and the discovery of new ones. After having collaborated with each other for many years in this research field, Virus and Virus-Like Diseases of Pome and Stone Fruits was conceived in 2004 with our recognition of the need for a book that would provide state-of-the-art information on biological, molecular and immunological advances in our knowledge of these pathogens and of strategies to control them. This book presents the result of this team endeavour, providing up to date information in a comprehensive, scientific and systematic manner in a total of 68 chapters arranged into 11 parts as follows:
Part I Introduction (Chapters 1-3)
Part II Pome Fruit Viruses and Related Diseases (Chapters 4-9)
Part III Pome Fruit Viroids and Related Diseases (Chapters 10-13)
Part IV Pome Fruit Phytoplasmas and Related Diseases (Chapters 14-16)
Part V Stone Fruit Viruses and Related Diseases (Chapters 17-39)
Part VI Stone Fruit Viroids and Related Diseases (Chapters 40-42)
Part VII Stone Fruit Phytoplasmas and Related Diseases (Chapters 43-47)
Part VIII Diseases of Pome and Stone Fruits of Undetermined Etiology (Chapter 48)
Part IX Virus and Virus-Like Diseases of Nuts, Figs, and Olive Trees (Chapters 49-53)
Part X Detection Methods for Pome and Stone Fruit Viruses, Viroids and Phytoplasmas (Chapters 54-61)
Part XI Control Measures for Pome and Stone Fruit Viruses, Viroids and Phytoplasmas (Chapters 62-68)
Economic impact and classification of systemic pathogens of pome and stone fruit are presented in the first three chapters. Forty four chapters cover specific agents while five chapters deal with pathogens in a crop-dependant manner, describing viruses and phytoplasmas affecting hazelnut, almond, fig and olive. Each of these chapters summarizes the current state of knowledge on the pathogen and the disease(s) it causes. In addition, the following topics, also pertinent to the central theme of the book, have been included in 16 chapters: one chapter on virus-like diseases of fruit trees of unidentified etiology, eight chapters on techniques available for the detection of these pathogens, including biological, immunological, microscopy (both fluorescent and electron microscopy) and molecular (dsRNA, polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, molecular hybridization, polymerase chain reaction and DNA microarrays) methods. Lastly, one chapter presents an overview of control strategies of systemic pathogens and six chapters address specific control measures that can be used against these pathogens, including vector control, exclusion by certification and quarantine, elimination by thermotherapy, tissue culture or in vitro micrografting, biotechnological approaches for resistance, breeding for resistance to Plum pox virus and the role of international organizations in controlling these pathogens.
The major aim of the editors has been to produce a cohesive, comprehensive, and up-to-date volume on Virus and Virus-Like Diseases of Pome and Stone Fruits that can be used effectively by students, teachers, researchers, biotechnologists, diagnosticians, extension agents and regulators.