|Riassunto in Inglese:|
Viruses, viroids, phytoplasmas, bacteria, fungi and nematodes are the causal agents of plant diseases that cause significant losses of economically important horticultural, vegetable, field, and ornamental crops. To reduce the economic losses caused by these pathogens different reliable and accurate methods for their detection and identification have been developed. None of these current standard methods detect simultaneously multiple pathogens. DNA microarray technology was developed in 1995 as a powerful tool for simultaneously displaying the expression of thousands of genes. During the last decade this technology has been utilized for the detection of plant viruses and other pathogens because of its parallel nature, which made it ideal for detection of a single pathogen as well as for simultaneous analysis of many pathogens. In this review the utilization of DNA microarrays for the detection and identification of the above plant pathogens with emphasis on viruses is presented. The scientific history and principle of
microarrays, the types of microarrays, and the steps needed for the design and implementation of a DNA microarrays experiment are discussed. In addition, the current applications of microarray for plant pathogen detection and identification and their advantages and disadvantages are also discussed.