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Publication datasheet
Title:
Lotta alle fitoplasmosi delle piante arboree da frutto
Authors:
Conti, M.; Barba, M.; Osler, R.
Year:
2012
Languages:
ITA, eng
Journal:
Protezione delle colture
Kind of publication:
Cartaceo
Location:
Cernusco Lombardone (LC)
Editor:
Ace2 di Aldo Giulio Colombo
Abstract in Italian:
Le infezioni da fitoplasmi causano danni di crescente gravità a varie coltivazioni, tra le quali quelle delle piante arboree da frutto. Il contenimento di queste malattie presenta difficoltà intrinseche dovute alla natura degli agenti eziologici e alle loro caratteristiche epidemiologiche. Gli interventi di lotta cui far ricorso sono discussi con riferimento alle fitoplasmosi dei fruttiferi più importanti in Europa e in Italia: il Giallume europeo delle drupacee (ESFY), gli Scopazzi del melo (AP) e la Moria del pero (PD). Dopo aver esaminato le principali caratteristiche delle malattie, sono discussi gli interventi di difesa mediante l’impiego di cultivar e portinnesti resistenti o tolleranti, il controllo sanitario delle piante capostipiti da propagazione vegetativa e delle piante in vivaio, l’uso appropriato di pratiche agronomiche, la lotta chimica contro gli insetti vettori individuati in diverse specie di psille. Anche il fenomeno della remissione spontanea dei sintomi in piante infette (recovery) è preso in considerazione per gli spunti innovativi di lotta che potrebbe suggerire. Si conclude che la lotta deve essere orientata a prevenire le infezioni soprattutto mediante il controllo sanitario delle piante e il contenimento degli insetti vettori. Parole Chiave: fitoplasmi; insetti vettori; psille; drupacee; pomacee.
Abstract in English:
Control of fruit tree phytoplasma diseases Phytoplasma infections cause diseases of increasing economic importance to many crops including the fruit tree plants. Controlling such diseases is particularly difficult due to the peculiar nature of their etiological agents, their ecology and epidemiology. The control measures to be adopted are discussed considering the diseases most important in both Europe and Italy, namely European stone fruit yellows (ESFY) causing serious damage to apricots, peaches and several plum species, Apple proliferation (AP) that affects Malus spp. including some its ornamental and wild species, and Pear decline (PD) which damages many cultivated and spontaneous species of Pyrus sp. The phytoplasmas agents of such diseases all belong to the taxonomic group 16Sr X and are transmitted persistently by diverse species of psyllid insects in the genus Cacopsylla sp. Most of these overwinter on conifers and migrate to fruit tree crops in spring. After discussing many aspects of the diseases and their pathogenic agents, the control methods available are considered including the use of resistant or tolerant cultivar and rootstocks, the sanitary testing of mother plants and of plants in the nurseries, the appropriate use of some agronomic practices, and the spraying of chemicals against insect vectors. The phenomenon of recovery or spontaneous symptom remission, which occurs relatively often just in the case of several phytoplasma diseases of fruit trees, is also taken into consideration on the light of some new control strategies that it might suggest. It is concluded that according to our present knowledge, the control of phytoplasma diseases of fruit tree crops must be addressed to prevent infections based on the sanitary control of plants, prompt eradication of infected trees, and spraying against insect vectors. Keywords:

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