|Riassunto in Inglese:|
Apple mosaic virus (ApMV) is the causal agent of several diseases of the line pattern type affecting most cultivated Prunus spp., including plum, almond, peach, apricot, cherry and sour cherry. However, similar symptoms on Prunus spp., Japanese plum, peach and flowering cherry in particular, may also be caused by other Ilarviruses, e.g. Prunus necrotic ringspot virus (PNRSV) and American plum line pattern virus (APLPV) (see pertinent chapters in this volume).
Atanasoff (1935) was the first to describe mosaic diseases on stone fruits in Bulgaria, and by 1970 the occurrence of similar diseases in Prunus spp. had been reported under the same or different names, i.e. striped variegation, oak-leaf pattern, banded chlorosis, yellow band mosaic or line pattern in many, mostly European, countries (Arnaud and Arnaud, 1936; Josifovic, 1935; Christoff, 1938; Willison,1945; Kirkpatrick, 1955; Gilmer, 1956; Posnette and Ellenberger, 1957; Ellenberger, 1962; Nemeth, 1986).
The possible relationships between virus-caused line pattern diseases and ApMV were indicated by the reports of interspecies inoculations of those viruses: isolates from plum, peach and cherry with line pattern symptoms produced mosaic in apple, and inoculums from apple produced line pattern in plum (Christoff, 1938; Kirkpatrick, 1955; Gilmer, 1956; Posnette and Ellenberger, 1957; Fulton, 1965). The transmission of the virus from plum to herbaceous plants, its back-inoculation on Prunus spp. and the subsequent virus identification by purification and study of its electron-microscopic and serological properties firmly suggested close relationship between the virus causing line patterns and ApMV (Seneviratne and Posnette, 1970).
Following the proposal of Seneviratne and Posnette (1970), the disease was also called European plum line pattern for the purpose of avoiding possible confusion with American plum line pattern which is caused by another Ilarvirus (Paulsen and Fulton, 1968; Fulton, 1982; Scott and Zimmerman, 2001), not serologically related to ApMV.
ApMV infections of different Prunus spp. grown worldwide are confirmed by serological and modern molecular methods. The virus is more common on Prunus spp. than on Malus spp. in Europe, where it seems to be spread by vegetatively propagated tolerant plum rootstocks like damson, greengage, Pollizo, etc. (Desvignes et al., 1999).