|Riassunto in Inglese:|
Biomass recovery for energy use is generating increasing interest in recent years.
The use of woody biomass, whether from the traditional forest activities, dedicated forest plantations or residues wood obtained from agricultural sector (pruning or any other processing), can have a significance that goes far beyond a simple field cleaning up. In fact, this activity could represent an opportunity of energy recovery, sustainable in environmental, agronomic and economic terms. In this way, it is possible to exploit the wood residues as high energy fuel for producing thermal energy in small boilers or electric energy in big power plants.
The test was conducted with Comby TR/160 machine, made by FACMA LTD (Italy).
The machine is able to pick the pruning up off the ground, to chip and load it into an hauled container. This study is part of a broad program of activities known as FRUMED project, for the development of fruit growing in Southern Italy, funded by the Italian Ministry of Agricultural, Food and Forestry Policies (MiPAAF).
The experimental plot was located within a 12 years hazelnut cultivation.
Plants were manually pruned and the pruning were gathered into windrows within two rows, placing branches almost perpendicular to the machine direction of travel. After the harvest, samples of pruning wood residues left on the ground were taken to estimate their quantity. Further samples of harvested product were taken to determine their density, moisture content and size fractions, following the European standards established by the CEN (European Committee for Standardization). Working times analysis was conducted according to the CIOSTA (Commission Internationale de l’Organisation Scientifique du Travail in Agriculture) method. Finally operating cost of the machine were calculated. The results show that the machine can operate with a working time of about 1 h ha-1 and a productivity of 1.64 t h-1. Picking up and chipping cost is 38 € ha-1, corresponding to a cost of 26 € t-1, with a moisture content of 43%. The product, due to the small size of the twigs, has often longitudinal sizes greater than 120-150 mm, and this could create problems of usage in small boilers with auger feed system.