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CRA-VIT - The Power of the Terroir: the Case Study of Prosecco Wine - Diego Tomasi, Federica Gaiotti, Gregory V. Jones - Springer Editore - 2013

La potenza del Terroir: il caso di studio del vino Prosecco

 

Il volume vuole proporsi come metodo di studio mirato alla valorizzazione di un vino e del suo “terroir”.

Nel testo vengono riportati i risultati di 8 anni di studio condotti su oltre 100 vigneti dell’area di produzione del vino DOCG Prosecco Conegliano – Valdobbiadene.  L’indagine ha posto particolare attenzione alle complesse relazioni tra fattori ambientali e umani che influenzano lo sviluppo e la composizione qualitativa dell’uva e del futuro vino. L’area è stata suddivisa in 18 sottozone omogenee e ad ognuna di esse è stata assegnata una sua precisa identità pedologica, climatica e agronomica che si riversa poi in una specifica unicità organolettica dei vini con un alto grado di ripetibilità negli anni dei loro caratteri gusto – olfattivi.

Gli elementi che maggiormente influenzano le diversità riscontrate sono: la morfologia dei siti, l’origine e la composizione attuale dei suoli, i valori di temperatura massima e di escursione termica, lo stato idrico dei suoli e della pianta nella fase di maturazione, i valori acidi delle uve e il loro livello di maturazione, i carichi produttivi per ceppo in relazione allo sviluppo vegetativo, la densità di impianto.

Nel testo sono riportati numerosi approfondimenti tecnici specifici per la varietà Glera, numerosi consigli agronomici portati specificatamente sulle diverse realtà produttive e un capitolo dedicato al paesaggio e alla sua fragilità.

Il lettore troverà risposta del perché i vini di una zona sono così diversi dai vini di un’altra, perché il vitigno Glera è così esigente in termini idrici, perché l’area DOCG è particolarmente vocata, qual’è attualmente l’impatto del cambio climatico sul vitigno Glera.

Contents:

1 Knowledge of the Viticultural Area and of its Wines. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1

2 Glera Grape Variety. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7

2.1 Glera: The Reason for a New Name. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10

2.2 In-Depth Treatment: Glera at a Glance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11

2.3 In-Depth Treatment: Training Systems for Glera. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12

Bibliography. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16

3 Study on the Origins of Quality: Formulation of the Investigation. . . 19

3.1 Affirmation of a Viticultural Tradition. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21

3.2 Study of Climate and Soils. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22

3.3 Selection of Sample Vineyards. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24

3.4 Study of the Variety-Environment Interaction: Composition

of the Berry, Vegetative Growth and Crop Yields. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24

3.5 Microvinifications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26

3.6 Organoleptic Evaluation of the Wines. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26

3.7 In-Depth Treatment: Protocol for the Determination

of the Aromatic Fraction of the Glera Grape Variety. . . . . . . . . . . . . 28

3.8 In-Depth Treatment: Standard Protocol for White

Wine Microvinification . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28

Bibliography. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29

4 Climate. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31

4.1 Climate in Viticulture: The Main Elements that Relate

to and Direct the Development of the Vine . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31

4.1.1 Temperature. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31

4.1.2 Light. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32

4.1.3 Water . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33

4.2 Climate Variability. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35

4.3 Climate and the Grapevine: Vegetative and Qualitative Aspects. . . . 35

4.4 Climate in the DOCG Prosecco Growing Area. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36

4.5 Climate Characteristics in the Subzones of the Eastern Area

of the DOCG Prosecco. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43

4.5.1 Average Temperatures During the Growth Cycle . . . . . . . . . 43

4.5.2 Minimum, Maximum and Differential Temperatures

During Growth Cycle. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44

4.5.3 Rainfall. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45

4.6 Climate Characteristics in the Subzones in the Western Area

of the DOCG Prosecco. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46

4.6.1 Average Temperatures During the Growth Cycle . . . . . . . . . 46

4.6.2 Rainfall. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48

4.6.3 Direct Solar Radiation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48

4.7 Application of the Huglin Index to the Study Area. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50

Bibliography. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53

5 Phenology. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55

5.1 The Phenological Stages of Glera in the DOCG Prosecco District. . . 55

5.2 In-Depth Treatment: Climate Change and its Effects on Glera. . . . . 61

Bibliography. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63

6 Soils. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65

6.1 Soil as Guarantor of Quality and Vine Health. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65

6.2 Soils in the DOCG Conegliano-Valdobbiadene Area. . . . . . . . . . . . . 69

6.2.1 Geology and Geomorphology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69

6.2.2 Soil Formation and Evolution . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72

6.2.3 Description of Soils. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 74

6.3 In-Depth Treatment: Winter Pruning Canes, from Refuse

to Resource. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 77

Bibliography. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 79

7 Water and Soil Water Availability. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 83

7.1 Water Stress. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85

7.2 Water–Soil–Vine Relations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 87

7.3 Soil Water Reserves in the Eastern Area of the

DOCG Prosecco Zone. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 90

7.4 Soil Water Reserves in the Western Area of the

DOCG Prosecco Zone. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 92

7.5 In-Depth Treatment: Stomata, Foliar Morphology, Vigour

and Drought Resistance. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 95

7.6 In-Depth Treatment: Water Sustainability in the Vineyard . . . . . . . . 99

Bibliography. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 101

8 Glera’s Crop Yield and Grape Quality Responses

to Environmental Conditions. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 105

8.1 Vineyard Yields . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 105

8.1.1 Eastern Area. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 106

8.1.2 Western Area . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 107

8.1.3 In-Depth Treatment: Vineyards on Steep Slopes:

What are Their Actual Yields?. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 109

8.2 Grape Quality. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 113

8.2.1 Eastern Area. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 113

8.2.2 Western Area . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 118

8.3 Growth–Crop Balance in the Vineyard . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 120

Bibliography. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 123

9 Microstructure of the Grape: Aromatic Precursors

in Relationship to Climate, Microclimate

and Growing Practices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 127

9.1 Aromatic Precursors. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 127

9.2 Aromatic Characterisation of Glera. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 130

9.3 Relation Between Presence of Aromatic Precursors

and Olfactory Impressions. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 132

9.4 Seasonal Climate Variability and Aromatic Precursor Content. . . 134

9.5 Aromatic Quality in Relation to Thermal Variability

of Individual Sites . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 136

9.6 Aromatic Quality Related to Growing Soils . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 142

Bibliography. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 145

10 Organoleptic Characteristics of the Wines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 149

10.1 Wines of the Eastern Area. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 150

10.1.1 1997 Wines. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 150

10.1.2 1998 Wines. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 152

10.1.3 1999 Wines. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 153

10.1.4 Three-Year Average Levels and Organoleptic

Descriptors: Considerations. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 155

10.2 Wines of the Western Area. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 156

10.2.1 2003 Wines. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 157

10.2.2 2004 Wines. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 160

10.2.3 2005 Wines. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 160

10.2.4 2006 Wines. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 162

10.2.5 Four-Year Average Levels and Organoleptic

Descriptors: Considerations. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 164

Bibliography. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 165

11 Representative Terroirs in the DOCG Prosecco . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 167

11.1 Introduction. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 167

11.2 Susegana. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 167

11.3 Conegliano–Feletti. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 173

11.4 Colle Umberto. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 179

11.5 Rolle. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 185

11.6 Scandolere–Molere . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 190

11.7 Cartizze Alto. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 197

11.8 Valdobbiadene–San Pietro. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 203

11.9 Parte Alta Valdobbiadene–Guia. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 209

12 Using Geospatial Technologies to Better Understand Terroir . . . . . . 215

12.1 Introduction. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 215

12.2 Viticultural Region Characterisation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 216

12.3 Viticultural Suitability Analysis. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 216

12.4 Viticultural Land Use Identification. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 217

12.5 Precision Viticulture. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 219

12.6 Application of Geospatial Technologies to the Prosecco

Wine Region. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 221

12.7 Conclusions. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 229

Bibliography. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 231

13 The Role of Landscape in the Productive Context

and in the Quality of Prosecco Wine . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 235

13.1 Protection of the Growing Area: The Soil. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 237

13.2 Landscape. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 239

13.3 Protection of the Landscape. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 242

Bibliography. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 247


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